Dolichols are very long molecules that are located within a cellular membrane, kind of acting as its lining. A cellular membrane is an outer membrane, a protector of a cell, its «armour». It separates the contents of a cell from the ambient and controls the processes of penetration of various substances into a cell. A damaged, so called «torn» membrane results in a cell demise. But due to the presence of dolichols and their effect the membrane becomes flexible and resilient, and of course the membrane permeability depends on dolichols.
Dolichols also play a vital part in dolichol phosphate cycle, which is responsible for the regeneration and division of cells, the growth of new cells and the formation of various cellular forms. Dolichol phosphate cycle generates glycoproteins, so called «construction bricks» for almost any kinds of structures – ferments/enzymes, hormones, collagen, tissue, receptors, immune bodies, plasma proteins, and many others. Apart from that, dolichols play an important role in energy processes within a cell. Dolichols are synthesized in a liver, from which they disperse throughout the body. Because of various illnesses, and due to aging processes the numbers of dolichols drop significantly. The decline in dolichol numbers causes the premature aging and death of cells, as well as metabolic disorders and loss of proper organ functioning.
Polyprenols are natural analogues of dolichols that are found in plants. Hence, they are capable of taking place of the missing dolichols without processes of rejection or causing allergic reactions.